Children are likely to be obese when pregnant mothers smoking.
A new study shows that if mothers smoke during pregnancy, then the children grow up will increase nearly doubled risk of obesity. The same study also found that those pregnant mothers who in habit of do not eat breakfast, their children will be obesity increased 1.5 times the risk.
Although this study did not clarify that children obesity have to do with mothers smoke during pregnancy, but the researchers speculate that mothers smoking make embryo can not get enough nutrition in the uterine, and after children born will be the hoarding of nutrition.
Follow-up Study Near 20 years.
Japan’s Yamanashi University School, Medicine professor led research team spent nearly 20 years on tracking study 1,400 Japanese women. This 1400 Japanese women had children between April 1991 and March 1997. Researchers collected and analyzed the growth data of 1000 these women’s children from birth to the fourth grade (nine-year-old or 20-year-old).
Researchers found that mothers in less than three months pregnant and smoking, their children obesity risk are those non-smoking mothers gave birth to the child’s 2.9 times.
Professor said this study shows that during pregnancy (even early in the pregnancy) smoking will affect children health for a long time.
Researchers speculated that the reason for occuring this station is embryo can not get enough nutrition in the uterine, then after children born will be the hoarding of nutrition.
The Real Reason is not clear.
“But we have not found out the real reason. The important enlightenment we got is should quit smoking.” Professor said.
Recently, a public health experts meeting was hold in Japan, the professor announced this study results during the meeting, and his study paper will be issued in a medical report in North America on the December.
The question of exactly how safe or unsafe an e-cigarette is, is still being answered. However, a German professor by the name of Dr. Bernd Mayer has put together some information. If you can speak German, then enjoy his paper on electronic cigarette safety. If not, then here is a rough translation of his observations:
Appraisal more u?ber the pharmacology and toxicology of an electrical cigarette to the smoker curing O. Univ. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Bernd Mayer Institut fu?r pharmaceutical sciences pharmacology and toxicology Karl Franzens university Graz, university University of 2 A-8010 Graz, Austria assigns of: Renatus Derler Utschgraben 79 A-8600 Oberaich Austria background Mr. Renatus Derler plans the Einfu?hrung of a “electrical cigarette to the smoker curing” (patent specification EP1618803) in the European market and me asked to provide an appraisal more u?ber the health relevant aspects of this product. In the context of my technical authority I will judge in the following pharmakologischen and toxicological effects of the product which can be expected. Free market and juridische aspects extract themselves from my authority and remain unberu?cksichtigt therefore. Operational principle the substantial components of the “electrical cigarette” are with nicotine solution of soaked filters and an electrical atomizer for the electricalthermal evaporation of the nicotine solution. Condensed steam is inhaliert more u?ber a Mundstu?ck, whereby the process of smoking is simulated. The technical details and the structure of the electrical cigarette are in detail described in the godfather writing EP1618803. B. Mayer - appraisals electrical Zigarette/2 composition of the nicotine solutions sound patent specification EP1618803 are offered four filters soaked with differently concentrated nicotine solutions. In the highest dosage the solution 6 evaporated electricalthermally contains % nicotine, in which lowest dosage 0,1 % contain. as additive the solutions of 80 - 90 % propylene glycol (1,2-Propandiol). Daru?berhinaus contain the solutions pharmakologisch/toxikologisch negligible quantities (! 5 %) of taste materials and Antioxidantien. As quantitatively relevant inhalierte contents materials nicotine and propylene glycol are therefore to be rated. Nicotine nicotine is the main alkaloid in the sheets of the tobacco plant (Nicotina tabacum). Pure nicotine is, a water-soluble Flu?ssigkeit colorless at room temperature. The pharmakologische effect of nicotine is based on stimulation of nikotinischer acetyl choline receptors in vegetative ganglia (vegetative effects e.g. increase of blood pressure and gastrointestinal Motilitaet), in suprarenal body Mark (promotion of the Adrenalinausschu?ttung) and in the brain (central exciting effect). While the central exciting effect fu?hrt to psychological and physical nicotine dependence, the substantial effect injurious to health of nicotine on a narrowing caused by stimulation of sympathetic ganglia of blood vessels and from this resulting arterial hypertonia, Thrombosen and significantly increased risk is based fu?r to myocardial infarction and ischemic Insult (impact accumulation). Propylene glycol The bivalent alcohol propylene glycol (1,2-Propandiol) is a colorless Flu?ssigkeit innocuous with u?blicher use. The substance is contained in numerous food, Kosmetika, medicaments and tobacco goods as auxiliary material. Canned goods fodder fu?r small animals enthaet up to 13 % propylene glycol. With mentioned applications propylene glycol serves as preservative, solution mediator, emulsifying agent or damp retaining means. As food additive it carries the designation E 1520. Apart from allergischen reactions, which can be released by almost all materials, and easy irritations of the Konjunktiva propylene glycol is toxicological harmless. At the rat the LD50 20 - 25 g/kg, according to 1.5 - 1.9 kg/75 kg amounts to, thus several orders of magnitude more u?ber the propylene glycol content of the “electrical cigarette”. The additive of propylene glycol is to be rated therefore with present level of knowledge as toxicological irrelevant. B. Mayer - appraisals electrical Zigarette/3 quantitative comparison with conventional cigarettes cigarettes contain nicotine per Stu?ck up to 1 mg. With on the average 15 Zu?gen per cigarette maximally 0,067 mg nicotine per course are thus inhaliert. Typical substitution preparations contain 2 to 4 mg (chewing rubber) or 25 - 100 mg (depot plaster with continuous release more u?ber 16 to 24 hours). The “electrical cigarette” contains per tube (according to 20 cigarettes and/or. to 300 Zu?gen) 1,05 - 1,1 g solution, whereby after use a remainder volume of 0.15 - 0,2 g (Renatus Derler, personal report), so that per tube about 0,9 g solution fu?r the inhalation is verfu?gbar, the 0,9 mg (0,1 %) to 54 mg (6 %) nicotine remains contained. With 300 Zu?gen per tube thus 180 (6 %) becomes, 120 (4!%), 60 (2 %) and 3?g (0,1 %) nicotine per course inhaliert. The more highly proportioned solutions (6 - 2 %) therefore contain compared with handelsu?blichen cigarettes larger and/or comparable nicotine quantities, whereas with consumption of the 0,1 %-igen solution only 1/20 (5 %) of the nicotine quantity contained in cigarettes one inhhaliert. The “electrical cigarette” should therefore on the one hand to strong smokers sufficiently nicotine to the Verfu?gung place, on the other hand however by gradual reduction of the nicotine content an almost complete curing make possible. Toxicological evaluation of the “electrical cigarette” due to the nicotine content as with all forms of the therapeutic nicotine substitution also with the “electrical Zigarettte” the toxic effects of nicotine, stated above, mu?ssen to be beru?cksichtigt. Like other nicotine substitution preparations the “electrical cigarette” is contraindicated therefore with young people, pregnant women, nonsmokers and persons with cardiovascular illnesses. It appears essential to arrange this information for the consumer in generally more understandable and easily accessible form (on an enclosing note and/or as text on the packing). Apart from the nicotine content the “electrical cigarette” is to be evaluated however as toxicological harmless. Comparison with the consumption of tobacco goods of 58328 male cancer deaths in Germany in the year 1995 became 50 - 70 % caused by the cigarette smoking, whereby the rate with laryngeal cancer 80 % and with cancer of the lungs 75 - 90 % amounted to (Becker, N. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 127, 9-19, 2001). Main cause fu?r the increased cancer risk in addition, fu?r other subsequent sequences of smokers (e.g. bronchitis and Emphyseme) is a unu?berschaubare number of foreign matter, which with the burn of tobacco smoke (developing temperature 850 - 950 °C) and by pyrolysis of B. Mayer - appraisals electrical Zigarette/4 zigarettenpapier to be formed. In the gaseous phase of tobacco smoke so far more than 500 chemical compounds were identified, in the particle phase (condensate) more than 4000, 69 carcinogenic materials recognized among them and a multiplicity more toxically, partly highly reactive substances (Marquardt & shepherd, text book of the toxicology, Stuttgart, 2004). In the “electrical cigarette” the nicotine solution electricalthermally one evaporates, so that no active burn takes place. In contrast to the tobacco smoke inhalierte steam contains therefore neither tar, nor condensate or Carbon monoxide. As is the case for other nicotine substitution preparations therefore no increased risk is to be expected fu?r the illnesses specified above. In the comparison to the consumption of tobacco goods the health risk of the “electrical cigarette” is substantially lower therefore. From medical view the “electrical cigarette” is nachdru?cklich recommended to the smoker curing. Comparison with other forms of the nicotine substitution compared with other forms of the nicotine substitution has the “electrical cigarette” several substantial advantages. Particularly to emphasize are the better to be dosedness and thus adjustment to the need of the smoker. The rate of the nicotine release from depot preparations (plasters) is not controllably, chewing nicotine chewing rubbers fu?hrt frequent to unerwu?nschten points of the nicotine plasma concentration and appropriate side effects (among other things more violently, very more unpleasantly sip on). The “electrical cigarette” makes however the accurate adjustment for the nicotine dose possible to the current need. A further advantage is the Verfu?gbarkeit of four filters with removing nicotine content. This makes the concerning in the course for curing possible a gradated reduction of the nicotine dose. Finally also the psychological advantage should be mentioned, from which I could u?berzeugen myself personally. The “electrical cigarette” simulates the process of smoking u?beraus “life-genuinly”: one holds (something u?berdimensionierte) a cigarette in the hand, one can on it pull, it develops a smoke-similar steam and at the point simulates a red light the glow. Under Beru?cksichtigung of the craze behavior of smokers and their motor Bedu?rnisse (”hold something in the hands” and “by something nuckeln”), this simulation of smoking appears more gegenu?ber as substantial advantage different nicotine substitution preparations. It is only to befu?rchten that flight companions and other surpervisors will be heavy to u?berzeugen in nonsmoker zones of it that but one does not smoke this only simulated. Summary B. Mayer - appraisal electrical Zigarette/5 as with other nicotine substitution preparations is limited the toxicity of the “electrical cigarette” to the effects of nicotine. Since no burn process takes place, the load with other toxic and above all carcinogenic foreign matter contained in the tobacco smoke is void. The health risk is substantially lower therefore than with the consumption of tobacco goods. Apart from the nicotine content the “electrical cigarette” is to be evaluated as toxicological harmless. In contrast to other forms the “electrical cigarette” permits the accurate adjustment of the nicotine dose to the nicotine substitution to the need. The Verfu?gbarkeit of four filters with removing nicotine content makes a gradated reduction for the nicotine dose possible in the course of curing. The simulation of smoking should unterstu?tzen curing also psychologically better than chewing rubbers or plasters. To the smoker curing the “electrical cigarette” can be recommended unreservedly. However the product - like all other forms of the nicotine substitution - is contraindicated with young people, pregnant women, nonsmokers and persons with cardiovascular illnesses. Daru?ber mu?ssen the consumers in generally more understandable and easily accessible form to be informed. Graz, on 6 March 2006 O. Univ. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Bernd Mayer
Tags: atomizer, cigar, E-Cigarette, e-Cigarette Health, Electronic Cigarette, glyco, media, medical, nicotine, propylene, RUYAN